Что такое cars согласно дж суэйзлу
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Что такое cars согласно дж суэйзлу

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Articles in Easy Understandable English for Learners

Cars are automobiles that can transport people. It is the main means of travelling for hundreds of millions of people all over the world. Cars have changed the way we live probably more than any other invention in history. At first only a few people had cars but after a while more and more people bought them because they improved the way people lived. Farmers with cars were able to bring their products to places that were farther away. The appearance of cities and towns also changed. More and more workers drove to their jobs and people started to move to suburbs outside the town centers.

Automobiles give people many jobs. Millions of people around the world work in factories where cars are produced. Millions more work at gas stations, restaurants or motels that travelers stop at.

However, cars also cause problems. Millions of people die in car accidents every year. Automobiles pollute the air that we breathe and parking space in cities is scarce because everyone wants to use their cars to get to city centers.

How cars work

Cars are very complicated machines and all systems in them work together. They power a car, control and steer it and make it comfortable for people to drive in.

The engine

The heart of every car is its engine. It produces the power that turns the wheels and electricity for lights and other systems.

Most automobiles are powered by an internal combustion engine. Fuel, usually gasoline or petrol, is burned with air to create gases that expand. A spark plug creates a spark that ignites the gas and makes it burn. This energy moves through cylinders in which pistons slide up and down. They are attached to rods that move a crankshaft. Normal car engines have four to six cylinders but there are also models with eight and sixteen cylinders. The turning movement is passed through the drivetrain to the drive wheels.

Fuel system

The fuel system pumps petrol from the tank to the engine. Older cars used to have carburetors that mix fuel with air and send the gas to the engine. Some cars have a special fuel injection system that sprays petrol into the engine. Modern cars have turbo chargers that suck in extra air and therefore create more power.


The engine and all parts that carry power to the wheels are called the drivetrain. It includes the transmission, drive shaft, differential, the axles and the drive wheels that move the car. While most cars have drive wheels in the front, some have them in the back. Cars that need to drive over all kinds of ground have a four-wheel drive.

The transmission controls the speed and torque. When a car travels at a normal speed on a flat road it does not need so much torque to keep it moving, but when you want to start a car from a hill the engine must produce more power. Gears control speed and power of the engine in different driving conditions.

In cars with manual transmission you have to change gears by pressing down the clutch with your foot and moving a lever. Cars with automatic transmission change gears without control by the driver. Lower gears give the car more torque and speed. When the car moves faster the transmission shifts to higher gears.

The driveshaft carries the power to the axle which is connected to the wheels. It has several joints which make the axle and wheels moveable as the car drives on uneven and bumpy roads.

The differential is connected to the rear end of the driveshaft. It lets the wheels turn at different speeds because in curves the outer wheels must travel a greater distance than the inner ones.

Steering system

The steering system controls the front wheels. Turning the steering wheel makes them point to the left or right. Most cars have power steering; a hydraulic system makes it easier for the driver to turn the wheels.

Brake system

The brake system slows down or stops the car. Brakes operate on all four wheels. There are two basic types of brakes: drum or disc brakes. In both cases a friction pad is pressed against a drum or disc with the help of a hydraulic system.

All cars have emergency hand brakes which you use if the hydraulic system fails. It is also called a parking brake because you use it to stop a vehicle from rolling down a hill. Antilock braking systems (ABS) keep the wheels turning when you step on the brakes. This computer controlled system prevents skidding if you are on a slippery road

Suspension system

The suspension system supports the weight of the car. It has wheels, axles, tires and springs. Most cars have shock absorbers to guarantee a smooth ride. Springs are between the axles of the wheels and the body of the car. They allow each wheel to move up and down on its own. The tires also help to make driving smoother. They are built so that they give the car grip on roads in all conditions.

Exhaust system

When a car burns fuel gases are produced. They must be removed so that new fuel can be burned. The pistons in the engine’s cylinders force gas out of the engine. It passes through a muffler into tail pipes. The muffler also keeps the car running quietly. For about thirty years cars have been equipped with a catalytic converter. It reduces pollution by converting harmful gases into carbon dioxide and water

Cooling system

Burning fuel inside a car’s engine creates a lot of heat. Most of it has to be removed by a cooling system. Liquid cooling systems have a mixture of water and chemicals. A water pump forces this mixture to flow between the cylinders of the engine. The hot water is then pumped through a radiator where the air carries away the heat.

Lubrication system

Oil is important for an engine to work. It flows through the moving parts so that the metal does not rub against other metallic pieces. Without lubrication the metal would become too hot and the engine would be destroyed.

Oil is stored in an oil tank at the bottom of the engine. From there it is pumped around the engine. A filter removes dirt from the oil so that it won’t do any damage to engine parts. After you have driven a certain number of kilometers you must change the oil and the oil filter.


The dashboard has many instruments that show you how fast you are moving, the amount of petrol that is left in the tank, the oil temperature and some other information.

The body of the car is the outer shell that surrounds the mechanical parts and the passengers inside. Most bodies are made of steel, although some parts are made of strong plastic or fiberglass. The body includes the passenger compartment, hood, trunk and the fenders which cover the wheels.

Types of cars

  • Coupe = a two-door car with a fixed roof and a smaller back seat.
  • Convertible = a car with a flexible roof that can be folded together, so that you can drive without it
  • Station wagon or estate car = longer vehicles for larger families ; most of the time they have an extended cargo area
  • Sedan = common car type with two rows of seats and four doors. The car has a separate boot (trunk) for luggage
  • Minivan = a taller car that is shaped like a van; it has up to three rows and can carry 8 or 9 people.
  • Sport utility vehicle (SUV) = built like a small truck, it has a four wheel drive and space like a minivan ; it is often an off-road vehicle made for travelling on rough ground
  • Sports car = low to the ground with only two seats and a powerful engine

Safety features

Today all cars have safety features that protect passengers from accidents that may happen on the road. In almost every country passengers have to fasten their seat belts. Children and babies must be put in special seats.

Since the mid 1990s almost all cars have been equipped with air bags. They are normally in the steering wheel and if a car crashes they come out, inflate and protect the passengers from slamming into the front window. But there are other safety laws that carmakers must follow. Doors must have special locks that are crash resistant and bumpers must be able to absorb some force if the car crashes.

History of cars

In the late 1770s Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, a French engineer, built a car that ran on steam. Many American companies also started producing them but they were very expensive to make and cost a lot of money.

As time went on, engineers started experimenting with petrol-driven cars. They could travel faster and over longer distances. They were also safer than steampowered models which ran with petrol

Towards the end of the 19 th century Germany became the centre of car-making. Nikolaus Otto built the first internal combustion engine, Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz also began building petrol-driven engines.

Automobile production in the USA began in the 1890s. It was Henry Ford who started producing cars on an assembly line. Workers do only one task and car parts pass on a conveyer belt. By 1908 Ford’s Model T became the most popular car in the world and by 1927 the Ford Motor Company had produced over 15 million of them.

After car production had slowed down during the two world wars car makers began adding new features to post war models. Power steering, power brakes and automatic controls became common. More and more big cars were produced in the 1950s and 1960s. They used up a lot of fuel in a time in which oil was still very cheap.

This changed in the 1970s when Arab oil-producing countries started to raise prices for oil because western countries supported Israel. In the years that followed much was done to try to save and conserve fuel. Automakers started producing compact cars that were fuel-efficient.

In the meantime, Japan and Europe had begun to compete with American carmakers. By 1980 Japan became the largest car producing countries in the world.

The car of the future

Even though today’s car is a great machine that is fast, elegant and beautiful to look at, engineers are constantly working on a car that will make today’s automobile look old. Experts say that future cars will be made of plastics and carbon fibers that will be stronger and lighter than steel.

As oil is becoming more and more expensive, alternative power sources are being explored. Biodiesel, hydrogen fuel cells, electric cars and hybrids are energy sources that carmakers may use in the future.

Cars are becoming computerized machines. Some day they may drive themselves. Highways and other roads could be built so that cars can be programmed to drive along them by autopilot while passengers sit in the back and relax. Such cars could be radar controlled to avoid contact with other vehicles on the road.

The world’s biggest carmakers

The world’s biggest car producing countries
(in millions of cars per year)

Что такое cars согласно дж суэйзлу

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Learn about this topic in these articles:

discussed in biography

Lasseter, John

He codirected Cars (2006), which followed an array of anthropomorphic vehicles. During that time Lasseter also produced such Pixar films as Monsters, Inc. (2001), about the clash between the monster and human worlds, and Finding Nemo (2003), about a clownfish’s oceanic search for his son.


Michael Keaton

…voices in the animated films Cars (2006), Toy Story 3 (2010), and Minions (2015).

Jay Leno

Family Guy, and movies, notably Cars (2006). In addition, he played a car mechanic as a cast member of the sitcom Last Man Standing (2015–21). In 2021 Leno began hosting a reboot of the classic TV game show You Bet Your Life.


Randy Newman

…the song “Our Town” from Cars (2006) and another for the instrumental score for Toy Story 3 (2010) and a second Oscar, for the song “We Belong Together” from the latter film. He also scored Cars 3 (2017) and Toy Story 4 (2019). His song (“I Can’t Let You Throw…

Rascal Flatts

Rascal Flatts

…soundtrack to the animated film Cars, contributed to the act’s growing mainstream popularity. During this time, Rascal Flatts also won accolades from its peers, collecting the Country Music Association (CMA) award for best new artist in 2002 and dominating the vocal group category from 2003 to 2008.


Tony Shalhoub

…vehicle Luigi in the animated Cars (2006) and its sequels (2011, 2017), a psychiatrist in the romantic comedy How Do You Know (2010), and an arrogant entrepreneur whose kidnapping drives the plot of the action comedy Pain & Gain (2013). He also portrayed real-life figures in two movies that aired…

CaRS Model: Create a Research Space

The CaRS Model can help you build an introduction, especially in STEM fields. The model consists of three rhetorical moves that help identify the background, motivation, and focus of the research. This framework can help give your reader a basic overview of your larger project.

Move 1: Establish a Research Territory

The research territory, or broad topic, is the context required to both understand and conduct the research being explored. Your goal is to explain the current state of scholarship in the field and answer the question, “Why is this general research area important?”

Language for Establishing a Research Territory
  • __________ has been extensively studied.
  • Interest in __________ has been growing.
  • Recent studies have focused on.
  • __________ has become a major issue.

Move 2: Establish a Niche

The niche is the reason or motivation for the research. You are preparing your audience to understand how your research relates to the background you have given, highlighting gaps/problems in current knowledge that justify or explain the need for further investigation.

Methods for Establishing a Niche
  • Make a counter-claim (something is wrong)
  • Indicate a gap (something is missing)
  • Raise a question or make an inference (something is unclear)
  • Continue a tradition (adding something)
Language for Establishing a Niche
  • Previous studies of __________ have not examined.
  • Such studies are unsatisfactory because.
  • One question that needs to be asked, however, is.
  • Research on __________ has mostly been restricted to _________ so.

Move 3: Occupy the Niche

This step is an explanation of how you are responding to the need for further investigation. Explain how your research addresses the need you identified in the previous step and list your specific research objectives, questions, or methods.

Strategies for Occupying the Niche
  • Outline purpose(s) of your research
  • List research questions or hypotheses
  • Announce principal research findings
  • Indicate the structure of your research process
Language for Occupying the Niche
  • The purpose of this literature review is to.
  • This study aims to.
  • The evidence collected from this study demonstrates.
  • This review outlines/examines.

Adapted from: Swales, John and Christine Feak. Academic Writing for Graduate Students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2013. Print.


Move 1. Stress is an ever-present factor in the lives of university students, many of whom have difficulty regulating stress and functioning to their fullest potential. Many individuals choose to relieve their stress by listening to music, and stress relief as a result of music listening has been researched through both physiological and self-perception studies. Music listening decreases physiological stress by indirectly decreasing cortisol levels (a hormone linked to high stress levels) through a down-regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis (Linnemann, Ditzen, Strahler, Doerr, & Nater, 2015). Studies focused on self-perceived stress levels found that listening to music with the goal of relaxation is significantly more effective than listening to music for the purpose of distraction according to self-report measures (Linnemann et al., 2015). Move 2. While the positive relationship between music listening and stress relief has been supported within the general population, little research has been done to examine music’s effect on the mental health and stress levels of university students in particular. University students exhibit a higher rate of both stress-induced depression and anxiety than the general population due to the pressures of completing complex programs while often living away from home for the first time (Hanser, 1985, p. 419; Regehr, Glancy, & Pitts, 2013). As a result, student stress relief is a critical part of ensuring student wellbeing, especially with student mental health at the forefront of many recent discussions among university faculty, staff, and students. Move 3. This investigatory survey is the first step in a multi-stage study on how undergraduate residents at Conrad Grebel University College use music in relation to stressful situations, and how stress relief through music listening is perceived. We hypothesize that students will report stress-relief as one of the primary reasons they choose to listen to music, and that they will report choosing music they enjoy when they need to relieve stress. Patterns observed in student responses will be used to determine specific research questions for further investigation, and research on student stress relief could help to inform university policy makers on ways to create healthier campuses.

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Although each discipline has its own conventions for what articles, research reports, dissertations, and other types of scholarly writing should look like, academic writing shares some general characteristics across each field. One area of similarity is the introduction section. This handout provides strategies for revising introductions.

CARS (Creating a Research Space)

John Swales’ CARS model for introductions is based on his study of articles across a range of disciplines. He identified the following moves as common among most articles:

Move 1: Establishing a territory

Step 1 Claiming importance and/or

Step 2 Making topic generalizations and/or

Step 3 Reviewing items of previous research

Move 2: Establishing a niche

Step 1a Counter-claiming or

Step 1b Indicating a gap or

Step 1c Question-raising or

Step 1d Continuing a tradition

Move 3: Occupying the niche

Step 1a Outlining purposes or

Step 1b Announcing present research

Step 2 Announcing principle findings

Step 3 Indicating article structure

Writers can use these moves as a guide for revising their own writing, or for helping others.

Questions for Revision

Does the introduction to the piece of writing you are working with…

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